Botulinum toxin (Botox) is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium clostridium botulinum and related species. It prevents the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from axon endings at the neuromuscular junction and thus causes flaccid paralysis. Infection with the bacterium causes the disease botulism. The toxin is also used commercially in medicine, cosmetics and research.
There are seven types of botulinum toxin, named type A-G. Types A and B are capable of causing disease in humans, and are also used commercially and medically. Types C-G are less commons. Types E and F can cause a disease in humans, while the other types cause disease in other animals. Botulinum toxin types A and B are used in medicine to treat various muscle spasms and disease characterized by overactive muscle.
Commercial forms are marketed under the brand names Botox (onabotulinum toxin A, Allergan) Dysport / Azzalure (obobotulinum toxin A , Ipsen / Golderma) Xeomin / Bacouture (incobotulinum toxin A), Merz and jeuveau (parabotulinum toxin A, Evolus / Daewoong).
Botulinum toxin is used to treat certain eye disorders such as crossed eyes (strabismus) and uncontrolled blinking (blepharospasm), to treat muscle stiffness / spasms or movement disorders (such as cervical dystonia, torticollis), and to reduce the cosmetic appearance of wrinkles. It is also used to prevent headaches in people with very frequent migraines.
It is also used to treat severe underarm sweating and drooling / excess saliva.
Botulinum toxin is not a cure, and your symptoms will gradually return as the medication wears off.
This medication is given by injection by an experienced health care professional.
It is injected into the affected muscles (intramuscularly) when treating eye disorders, muscle stiffness / spasms, and wrinkles.
When used to prevent migraines, it is injected into muscles of the head and neck.
It is injected into skin (intra dermally) for the treatment of excessive sweating. For the treatment of drooling /excess saliva, this medication is injected into the salivary glands.
Your dose, the number of injections, the site of injections, and how often you receive the medication will be determined by your condition and your response to therapy. For children the dose is also based on weight. Most people start to see an effect within a few days to 2 weeks, and the effect usually lasts 3 to 6 months.
For the purpose of cosmetic Botox is used in the following cases:
• Forehead creases
• Frown lines
• Crow’s feet (lines around the eye)
• Lip lines
• Corner of mouth (marionette lines)
• Nasolabial fold (smile lines)
• They’re cost-effective.
• The procedure is brief.
• There is no serious pain involved.
• Recovery time is minimal.
• It results in a naturally rejuvenated appearance.
• The aftercare is minimal.
• Fewer risks are involved.
• Soften wrinkles and provides a refreshed appearance.
• There are added costs over a time period.
• It does require regular touch-ups.
• Could cause flu-like symptoms (rare) and headache.
• Small chance of bruising.
• There is a little pain involved